Sprague, Frank Julian

Sprague, Frank Julian
[br]
b. 25 July 1857 Milford, Connecticut, USA
d. 25 October 1934 New York, USA
[br]
American electrical engineer and inventor, a leading innovator in electric propulsion systems for urban transport.
[br]
Graduating from the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, in 1878, Sprague served at sea and with various shore establishments. In 1883 he resigned from the Navy and obtained employment with the Edison Company; but being convinced that the use of electricity for motive power was as important as that for illumination, in 1884 he founded the Sprague Electric Railway and Motor Company. Sprague began to develop reliable and efficient motors in large sizes, marketing 15 hp (11 kW) examples by 1885. He devised the method of collecting current by using a wooden, spring-loaded rod to press a roller against the underside of an overhead wire. The installation by Sprague in 1888 of a street tramway on a large scale in Richmond, Virginia, was to become the prototype of the universally adopted trolley system with overhead conductor and the beginning of commercial electric traction. Following the success of the Richmond tramway the company equipped sixty-seven other railways before its merger with Edison General Electric in 1890. The Sprague traction motor supported on the axle of electric streetcars and flexibly mounted to the bogie set a pattern that was widely adopted for many years.
Encouraged by successful experiments with multiple-sheave electric elevators, the Sprague Elevator Company was formed and installed the first set of high-speed passenger cars in 1893–4. These effectively displaced hydraulic elevators in larger buildings. From experience with control systems for these, he developed his system of multiple-unit control for electric trains, which other engineers had considered impracticable. In Sprague's system, a master controller situated in the driver's cab operated electrically at a distance the contactors and reversers which controlled the motors distributed down the train. After years of experiment, Sprague's multiple-unit control was put into use for the first time in 1898 by the Chicago South Side Elevated Railway: within fifteen years multiple-unit operation was used worldwide.
[br]
Principal Honours and Distinctions
President, American Institute of Electrical Engineers 1892–3. Franklin Institute Elliot Cresson Medal 1904, Franklin Medal 1921. American Institute of Electrical Engineers Edison Medal 1910.
Bibliography
1888, "The solution of municipal rapid transit", Trans. AIEE 5:352–98. See "The multiple unit system for electric railways", Cassiers Magazine, (1899) London, repub. 1960, 439–460.
1934, "Digging in “The Mines of the Motor”", Electrical Engineering 53, New York: 695–706 (a short autobiography).
Further Reading
Lionel Calisch, 1913, Electric Traction, London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ch. 6 (for a near-contemporary view of Sprague's multiple-unit control).
D.C.Jackson, 1934, "Frank Julian Sprague", Scientific Monthly 57:431–41.
H.C.Passer, 1952, "Frank Julian Sprague: father of electric traction", in Men of Business, ed. W. Miller, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 212–37 (a reliable account).
——1953, The Electrical Manufacturers: 1875–1900, Cambridge, Mass. P.Ransome-Wallis (ed.), 1959, The Concise Encyclopaedia of World Railway
Locomotives, London: Hutchinson, p. 143..
John Marshall, 1978, A Biographical Dictionary of Railway Engineers, Newton Abbot: David \& Charles.
GW / PJGR

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Sprague,Frank Julian — Sprague (sprāg), Frank Julian. 1857 1934. American engineer and inventor. He developed the first electric trolley system (1887) and made advances in electric elevator design. * * * …   Universalium

  • Frank Julian Sprague — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Frank Julian Sprague Frank Julian Sprague (1857 1934) inventor americano conocido como el Padre de la tracción eléctrica Nacimiento …   Wikipedia Español

  • Frank Julian Sprague — (* 25. Juli 1857 in Milford, Connecticut; † 25. Oktober 1934) war ein US amerikanischer Marineoffizier und Erfinder. Er gilt in den USA als „Vater der elektrischen Traktion“ und leistete erhebliche Beiträge zur Entwicklung elektrischer Motoren,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Frank J. Sprague — Frank Julian Sprague Frank Julian Sprague (* 25. Juli 1857 in Milford, Connecticut; † 25. Oktober 1934) war ein US amerikanischer Marineoffizier und Erfinder. Er gilt in den USA als „Vater der elektrischen Traktion“ und leistete erhebliche… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Frank Sprague — Frank Julian Sprague Frank Julian Sprague (* 25. Juli 1857 in Milford, Connecticut; † 25. Oktober 1934) war ein US amerikanischer Marineoffizier und Erfinder. Er gilt in den USA als „Vater der elektrischen Traktion“ und leistete erhebliche… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Frank J. Sprague — Frank J SPRAGUE inventeur et père de la traction électrique Frank Julian Sprague (1857–1934) était un officier de la marine des États Unis et un inventeur qui a contribué au développement du moteur électrique, des automotrices électriques (en… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sprague — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Carl T. Sprague (1895–1987), US amerikanischer Countrysänger Charles Sprague (1887–1969), US amerikanischer Politiker Charles F. Sprague (1857–1902), US amerikanischer Politiker Clifton Sprague (1896–1955) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Frank J. Sprague — Infobox Scientist name = Frank J. Sprague caption = Frank Julian Sprague (1857 1934) American inventor, Father of Electric Traction birth date = birth date|1857|7|25 birth place = death date = death date and age|1934|10|25|1857|7|25 death place …   Wikipedia

  • Sprague — /sprayg/, n. Frank Julian, 1857 1934, U.S. electrical engineer and inventor. * * * …   Universalium

  • Sprague — /sprayg/, n. Frank Julian, 1857 1934, U.S. electrical engineer and inventor …   Useful english dictionary

  • Frank Bridge — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Frank Bridge Información personal Nacimiento 26 de febrero de 1879 Brighton (Inglaterra) Muerte 10 de e …   Wikipedia Español

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”